What Is a Tracheostomy?
|Air flows into and out of the lungs through the trach tube.
A tracheostomy gives you a new pathway for air to go into and out of your lungs. To create this pathway, you need surgery to make a small opening in your neck. A tracheostomy tube (also called a “trach tube”) is then placed into this opening. Air then flows more directly into and out of your lungs through the tube.
How to say it
Reasons for a tracheostomy
Some of the reasons that a tracheostomy may be needed include:
Swelling of the throat that blocks the airway such as from an allergic reaction
Damage to the throat such as a burn
An object or growth such as a tumor that blocks the throat or trachea
Respiratory failure and the need for extra oxygen, such as with severe emphysema
Problems breathing during sleep (sleep apnea)
Paralysis of the abdomen, chest, neck, or throat that affects breathing
Surgery on the larynx
Cancer in or near the trachea
Need for long-term ventilation (machine-assisted breathing)
How a tracheostomy works
Surgery is done to make a small opening through the front of your neck into your trachea. This opening is called a stoma. A short tube (trach tube) is placed into the stoma. One end of the trach tube rests outside of your neck. The other end rests inside your trachea. When you breathe in, air flows through the trach tube into your trachea and to the lungs. When you breathe out, air flows back out of the trach tube. Some people need the new airway for only a short time. Others may need it permanently. Your healthcare provider or surgeon will discuss your needs with you.
Questions and answers
Q: Will I be able to speak with a tracheostomy?
A: It depends. Most tracheostomies can be fitted with a speaking valve. You may also be able to speak by closing off your tracheostomy intermittently and briefly with your finger. Electrical devices are available or you can learn esophageal speaking. It will also depend on your ongoing need for a mechanical ventilator, and how intact and functional your vocal cords are.
Q: Will I be able to eat food with a tracheostomy?
A: Yes. Most people can eat, but you may need to take some precautions. In some cases, you may need to change your diet to softer foods.
Q: How long will it take for my opening to heal once the tracheostomy tube is removed?
A: In most cases, healing only takes a few days.